COVID-19 is resulting in deadly brain Inflammation

COVID-19 is resulting in deadly brain Inflammation

A recent study showed that patients with COVID-19 having the rare and often fatal neurological disorder, called ADEM, were rising comparatively.

According to a new review, COVID-19 can cause dangerous neurological complications including delirium, brain inflammation, nerve damage or stroke.

COVID-19 is resulting in deadly brain Inflammation

Furthermore, the authors of the study indicated that patients with a severe and often fatal neurological disorder called acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) at their hospital were experiencing a relative increase. The authors said all of the patients with ADEM had confirmed or suspected COVID-19, indicating that the pandemic may lead to a rise in this condition.

In a statement, co-senior author Dr Michael Zandi, a neurologist at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London, said the results add to an increasing body of evidence linking COVID-19 to brain effects, and indicate that doctors should be “vigilant and watch out for certain risks” in COVID-19 patients.

How frequently brain injuries arise in COVID-19 patients is unknown, but the study involved only hospitalized patients who were referred to the neurology department of the hospital, indicating that the study presumably involved some of the more serious cases.

The authors of the analysis examined details from 43 patients aged 16 to 85 with neurological complications treated at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, part of the NHS Foundation Trust of University College London Hospitals.

Among these, 29 had a positive COVID-19 test, and the others were probable or suspected COVID-19 cases based on symptoms and findings from other studies, such as chest X-rays and CT scans.

There were 10 instances of transient encephalopathy, with signs of delirium (for instance: confusion and disorientation) or temporary brain dysfunction. One patient had psychotic signs involving hallucinations of the visual and auditory. In the end, most of these patients made a full recovery without different therapies.

Eight patients have had strokes separately, usually because of blood clots. Researchers previously found COVID-19 can increase the risk of blood clots. These patients appeared to have bad outcomes, with none surviving entirely, and one patient died after their stroke.

An unusual autoimmune reaction that usually arises during an injury, for example, a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, has produced eight additional cases, mostly attributed to Guillain Barré Syndrome.

Twelve of the patients were diagnosed with ADEM and brain inflammation. In this party, one of the patients died. Among children, ADEM is usually seen, but the ADEM patients were all grown-ups in this study. The study team typically saw one adult case of ADEM in their hospital a month before the pandemic, but it expanded into one case a week during the pandemic.

In samples of patients’ cerebrospinal fluid (fluids around the brain and backbone), researchers did not find SARS-CoV-2, the virus that triggers COVID-19, indicating that these patients did not invade the brain directly. For certain patients, brain scans (and one brain biopsy) revealed that an immune system response caused brain inflammation.

“Our work helps explain the different ways COVID-19 can affect the brain and is of vital importance to gather resources to promote and facilitate the diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients,” said co-author of the study, Dr Rachel Brown of Queen Square Institute of Neurology, of University College London.

The authors concluded that more research is required to explain why such brain effects can occur and whether they would lead to long-term health problems.

COVID-19 is resulting in deadly brain Inflammation

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