Exploring Qualitative Research Design
What do you mean by Qualitative Research Design?
Depending on the methodological approach used, quality study design differs, participant experiences, insightful interviews (both face-to-face and on the phone) and focus groups are all examples of methodologies that can be used in qualitative research growth. Although the various qualitative methodologies are varied, there are also commonalities.
A clear understanding of a specific subject, subject, or context-based on first-hand knowledge is the underlying explanation for doing all qualitative research.
The consequence is that the collection of data can be relatively time-consuming because qualitative data are about depth and not the amount of information. The sample base is limited but concentrated. A qualitative research design is intended to provide answers to (unlike quantitative) the causes and ways for the specific phenomenon.
This often defines qualitative research as subjective (not objective), and results are collected in a written format rather than numerical. This means that results from qualitative research can not necessarily be interpreted in a quantifiable manner using statistical methods as the different findings obtained might not be in general. However, if common categories can be identified during analysis, a coding process may be implemented.
Although qualitative research questions / comments can not receive a clear response, it is more often than you initially believe, the opportunity to code the results exists. The explanation is that, while the researcher allows the respondent to extend and explain those points posed (in an interview / focus group) or behavior taken (participatory observation), it “guides” the study in a particular direction.
Qualitative research design should also take into consideration not only what is said or done but also how a participant speaks or performs something. Often these forms of doing so may include answers to questions in themselves and to the language of the body.
Basic Qualitative Research Characteristics
- Design is generally based on a social constructivism perspective.
- Research problems become research questions based on prior research experience.
- Sample sizes can be as small as one.
- Data collection involves interview, observation, and/or archival (content) data.
- Interpretation is based on a combination of researcher perspective and data collected.
Quantity vs Quality
The key to describing the type of data gleaned from an experiment, not from the phenomenon, is quantitative and quality. The type of data we extract from an experiment is dependent on the experiment design and the parameters which we as researchers set before the experiment starts.
External world phenomena are therefore interpreted through the selected experimental framework – depends on the question of research whether it is quantitative or qualitative.
Many cognitive scientists , for example, are interested in the nature of human consciousness. Although some theorists focused on “counting” IQ, others were concerned with the nature of intelligence, the variation in cognitive processes, the patterns of development and the feeling of different phenomena linked to IQ etc. (Qualitative approach & Qualitative approach).
- Quantitative data: amounts, volumes and measurements can be represented and statistically manipulated in numbers. An IQ score of 120 for examples.
- Qualitative data: The features, attributes and properties that can be thematically interpreted. For example, pilots are claiming knowledge which is not verbal but visual-spatial.
|Comparison of qualitative & quantitative research|
|Definitions||a systematic subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning||a formal, objective, systematic process for obtaining information about the world. A method used to describe, test relationships, and examine cause and effect relationships.|
|Goals||To gain insight; explore the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in the phenomenon.||To test relationships, describe, examine cause and effect relations|
|Characteristics||Soft science Focus: complex & broad Holistic Subjective Dialectic, inductive reasoning Basis of knowing: meaning & discovery Develops theory Shared interpretation Communication & observation Basic element of analysis: words Individual interpretation Uniqueness||Hard science Focus: concise & narrow Reductionistic Objective Logistic, deductive reasoning Basis of knowing: cause & effect, relationships Tests theory Control Instruments Basic element of analysis: numbers Statistical analysis Generalization|
Exploring Qualitative Research Design