Immune System: Specific & Non Specific immunity, Here we will examine the nature and function of your immune system. We will also discuss the two specific and non-specific parts of the immune system.
What is the Immune System?
Special organs, cells and chemicals fighting infection (microbes) are present in the immune system. The most important components of the immune system are white blood cells; antibodies; supplement system; lymph system; spleen; thymus; and bone marrow. These are the parts of your immune system that combat infection actively.
You wake up and don’t feel comfortable? Perhaps your throat hurts, and you’ve got a little headache. It appears to have broken your immune systems, like a pathogen or infectious particle! Your immune system is a group within your body of tissues, cells and chemicals that protect you from the disease.
Pathogens, which are viruses, bacteria and parasites are responsible for illnesses. Your immune system comprises two main parts: the non-specific immune system and the specific one.
Parts of the immune system
The main parts of the immune system are:
- white blood cells
- complement system
- lymphatic system
- bone marrow
White blood cells
The key players in your immune system are white blood cells. It is produced in your bone marrow and is part of the lymph system.
White blood cells travel all over the body to seek external invaders (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi). They launch an immune attack when they find them.
Lymphocytes (such as B cells, T-cells and naturally occurring killing cells) and many other types of immune cells are included in white blood cells.
Antibodies help the body to fight against microbes or poisons. You are aware of the substances known as antigens on the microbe’s surface or chemicals that produce the microbe or toxin as foreign.
These antigens are marked for destruction by the antibodies. This attack involves a large number of cells, proteins and chemicals.
In response to the presence of a foreign substance, Antibody, also known as immunoglobulin, is a protective protein that an immune system produces and that an antigen. To remove them from the body, antibodies recognize and lay down on antigens. A large range of substances, including disease-causing organisms or toxic materials such as insect venom, are considered as antigenes by the body.
The complement system is made up of proteins whose actions complement the work done by antibodies.
A network of delicate pipes in the entire body is a lymphatic system. The main function of the lymphatic system is to:
- manage fluid level in the body to deal with cell products that would otherwise lead to illness or disorders that absorb some of the fats in our diet from the gut.
- The lymph system consists of lymph nodes (also known as lymph glands) that traps lymph-carrying tubes, which are the colourless liquid which bathes your body’s tissues and contains white blood cells (lymphocytes) that combat infection.
The spleen is a blood-filtering organ that removes microbes and destroys old or damaged red blood cells. It also makes disease-fighting components of the immune system (including antibodies and lymphocytes).
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside your bones. It produces the red blood cells our bodies need to carry oxygen, the white blood cells we use to fight infection, and the platelets we need to help our blood clot.
The thymus filters and monitors your blood content. It produces the white blood cells called T-lymphocytes.
The adaptive immune system is activated when pathogens are able to bypass innate immune defences.
Cells in the body have certain markers that identify them as “self” and say that the immune system is not attacked.
As soon as a pathogen is recognized by the immune system as “non-self,” cell and chemical defences are employed to attack it. The adaptive immune system often “remembers” after encountering a new pathogen, enabling a faster reaction if the pathogens ever attack again.
Antigens trigger specific immune responses. Antigens are usually found on the pathogens’ surface and are unique to this specific pathogen. Antigens are reactive to the immune system by generating cells that attack the pathogen directly or producing special proteins known as antibodies. Antibodies attach themselves to an antigen and attract cells to swallow and destroy the pathogen.
Lymphocytes known as B cells and T cells are the main cells of the immune system. The bone marrow produces B cells that mature. In the bone marrow, T cells are produced too, but in the thymus, they mature.
Non Specific immunity
The human body has a number of unspecified immune system defences. These defences do not target any pathogen, they provide protection against all infections.
The body’s main non-specific defence is the skin that acts as a physical barrier to preventing pathogens. Saliva, mucus and tears that contain an enzyme which breaks down bacterial cell walls are protected even on openings in the skin (such as the mouth and eyes).
The second line of defence There are secondary non-specific defences when a pathogen makes it into the body.
A pathogen stimulates an increase in blood flow to the infected area. An inflammatory response begins. In that area, there are vessels of blood expanding, and white blood cells leak into the infected tissue through the vessels. These so-called white blood cells absorb and destroy bacteria. During inflammatory reactions, the area is often red, swollen and painful.
The immune system can also release chemicals that increase the body’s temperature to produce a fever if a pathogen has invaded. Increased body temperature can slow down or stop the development of pathogens and help accelerate the immune response.
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