Kidney Disease: Types, Causes & Diagnosis
Introduction to kidney disease
It has been estimated that there are approximately 850 million people worldwide, who are suffering from kidney disease. It happens when the kidneys get weakened/damaged and can’t do their work. Kidney disorder can also contribute to other health complications, such as weak bones, malnutrition and damage to the nerves.
If you have diabetes or high blood pressure you are most likely to experience kidney failure. Treatment requires renal transplant or dialysis if you suffer from kidney failure. Audible kidney injury, kidney cyst, kidney stones and kidney infections are other kidney problems, for example.
If the disease gets worse in time, your kidneys might stop fully functioning. This means that for the functioning of the kidneys requires dialysis. Dialysis is a process that uses a machine to filter and purify the blood. It can not cure kidney disease, but it can extend your life.
The types and causes of kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is the most common form of renal disease. Chronic renal disease is an unimproved long-term illness. High blood pressure is often the cause of it.
High blood pressure is harmful to the kidneys as the pressure on the glomeruli can increase. Glomeruli are the small blood vessels in the kidneys where the blood is purified. The increased pressure damages these vessels over time and the functioning of the kidneys start decreasing.
The function of the kidney will eventually deteriorate to the extent that the kidneys can no longer do their job efficiently. A person would have to undergo dialysis in that case. The dialysis filtres additional blood fluid and waste. Dialysis can contribute to treating kidney disease, but can’t cure it. Depending upon your circumstances, kidney transplantation may be another treatment option.
The main cause of chronic kidney disease is Diabetes as well. Diabetes is a group of high blood sugar causing diseases. The increased level of sugar in the blood damages the blood vessels in the kidneys over time. This means that the kidneys can not properly cleanse the blood. Renal failure may take place when the toxins overload your body.
Kidney stones are one of the most common problems with the kidney. It is usually the result of an accumulation of certain minerals that clump into your kidneys. When the large stones move through your urinary tract they cause pain. If you have a little kidney stone that moves easily across the urinary tract, you may feel nothing. When the kidney stone passes through the urinary tract and your urine out of your body, it is called a kidney stone passing through.
Polycystic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that leads to the development of numerous kidney cysts. These cysts may interfere with the function of the kidney and cause renal failure. (Polycystic renal disease is a more serious condition. It is important to note that individual kidney cysts are fairly common and nearly inactive.)
The inflammation of the glomeruli is glomerulonephritis. Glomeruli are extremely small blood filtering structures in the kidneys. Infection, medication or congenital abnormalities (disorders that occur during or after birth) may lead to glomerulonephritis. Often it improves by itself.
Urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections ( UTIs) are any part of the urinary system’s bacterial infections. Bladder and urethra infections are the most prevalent. They are easy to treat and seldom lead to more health problems. These infections can however spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure when left untreated.
Diagnosis of kidney disease
Your doctor will first find out if you are in one of the high-risk groups. They will then conduct some tests to check whether your kidneys are working properly. The following tests may include:
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
This test will evaluate how well your kidneys work and the stage of renal disease is determined.
Ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) Scan
Ultrasounds and CT scans provide clear pictures of the urinary tract and kidney. The photos will allow your doctor to see whether your kidneys are too large or too small. They may also show any tumours or structural problems.
A urine test sample may be requested by your doctor to test albumin. Albumin is a protein that can get into your urine when it damages your kidneys.
Your doctor will remove a tiny piece of tissue from your kidney during kidney biopsy while you are sedated. The tissue analysis can aid your doctor in determining the type of kidney disease and the amount of damage occurred.
Blood creatinine test
Creatinine, it’s a waste product. When creatine (a muscle-stored molecule) is broken down, it is released into the blood. If your kidneys do not function properly, your blood creatinine levels will be increased.
Kidney Disease: Types, Causes & Diagnosis