List of Bioinformatics Applications
What is Bioinformatics?
Paulien Hogeweg and Ben Hesper coined bioinformatics in 1970. “Study of computer processes in biotic systems,” it was stated. The information on information technology, computer science and biology is mainly handled by bioinformatics. Biologist conducts laboratory research and collects the gene expressions, DNA and protein sequences etc. In the development of algorithms, tools and data storage and analysis software, computer scientists are involved. By analyzing molecular data with different programs and tools, bioinformaticians study biological questions.
- In structural genomics, functional genomics and nutritional genomics the field of bioinformatics plays a vital role.
- It covers emerging scientific investigations and proteome investigations of intracellular protein composition (protein profiles), protein structure, protein-protein interactions and unique patterns of activity ( e.g. post-translational changes).
- For transcriptome analysis, Bioinformatics is used to determine the levels of expression of mRNA.
- Bioinformatics is used for identification, structural modification of a natural product, design and theoretical evaluation of the compound with its desired properties.
- Chemical analyzes include analyzes like searching for similarities, clustering, QSAR, virtual screening, and so forth.
- In almost all aspects of drug discovery and drug development, bioinformatics plays an increasingly important role.
- In the prevision, analysis and interpretation of clinical and preclinical findings, the bioinformatics tools are very effective.
Applications of Bioinformatics
Bioinformatics is used mainly in medicine, in microbial genome applications and in agriculture in a broad spectrum of applications.
1. Medicine Applications
The following areas are being used in the field of medicine applications of bioinformatics:
When the first three-dimensional protein structure was determined the idea of using X-ray crystallography in drug discovery came up more than 30 years ago. In the space of a decade, a radical change has started in drug design, incorporating the know-how of 3D target protein structures into the design process. At every stage of the design process, protein structure can influence drug discovery. It is traditionally used in lead optimization, a process which uses a structure to guide the chemical modification of a lead molecule in order to optimize shape, hydrogen bonds and other non-covalent interactions with the objective.
Personalized medicine is a medical model which customizes health care with the application of genetic or other information to tailor all decisions and practices to the individual patient. Application outside long-established considerations, such as the family history of a patient, social conditions, the environment and behaviour are so far very limited, and in the last decade, almost no progress has been made. Custom medical research seeks to identify solutions on the basis of each individual’s susceptibility profile. These are the areas where new diagnostic, medication development and individual therapy approaches can be found.
Prevention medicine or preventive treatment involves measures taken not to cure, to treat or to treat diseases (or injuries). This is contrasting in methods with curative medicines and palliative medicines and in relation to methods of public health (which are not individual but population-based health). Simple examples are hand washing, nursing, and immunization for preventive medicine.
Gene therapy is a new form of drug delivery that includes a therapeutic agent produced by the patient’s synthetic machinery. Gene therapy In order to produce enough protéin encoded by the gene (transgene), it involves the efficient introduction of functional genes into the patient’s appropriate cells, so as to accurately and permanently correct the disorder.
2. Microbial Genome Applications
In the field of Microbial Genome Applications, applications of bioinformatics are used for following areas:
Bacteria and microbes that are helpful in the purification of waste are identified in bioinformatics. Deinococcus radioduran bacterium has the ability to repair DNA damaged and small chromosome fragments by isolating damage segments within a concentrated area. Deinococcus radioduran is a bacteria listed in the World Book of Guinness. This is because the genome of the genome is additional. Gens have been inserted into D from other bacteria. Environmental cleaning radiodurans. It has been used in organic chemicals, solvents and heavy metals at sites of radioactive waste.
Climate change is due to variations of the earth’s solar radiation, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions, or human changes to the natural world, including oceanic processes (such as the occurrence of oceanic circulation). By studying microorganisms, genome researchers can understand these microbes at a very basic level, isolating genes that enable them to survive in extreme conditions. A phototrophic purple, a non-sulfur bacterium commonly found in soil and water is Rhodopseudomonas palustris. By absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass, the sun is turned into cellular energy.
It comprises, through breeding programming using artificious selection and hybridisation, a wide concept of “biotechnology” or “biotechnology” which covers a range of procedures for modifying live organisms in a manner that refers to animal domestication, plant cultivation and improvement. Modern uses also include genetic engineering and technology for cell and tissue culture. Biotechnology identified organisms and microorganisms which may be useful in the dairy sector and food processors in the field of bioinformatics.
Lactococcus lactis, a non-pathogenic rod shape bacterium that is critical for the production of dairy foodstuffs like buttermilk, yoghurt and cheese, is one of the most important microorganisms involved in the dairy sector. It is also the use of this bacterium in the preparation of spiced vegetables, beer, wine and other bread and sausages. Researchers expect the understanding of the physiologic and genetic make-up of this bacterium to be invaluable for food producers as well as the L capability research pharmaceutical industry. Lactis to be used as a drug supply vehicle.
In the field of Agriculture, applications of bioinformatics are in following areas:
Comparative genetics of plant genomes showed that their genes’ organization remained more conserved than had previously been expected during evolutionary time. These findings show that information from model crop systems can be used to suggest improvements to other food crops. These results show. Examples of the available complete plant genomes are Arabidopsis thaliana (water cress) and Oryza sativa (rice). The first sequenced plant Arabidopsis thaliana is considered as a model of plant genetics and biology investigation.
In all plants, there are many genes similar and in a model organism such as A the analysis of genes. Thaliana helps us to understand and function gene expression in all plants. In addition, many of the genes found in A because both animals and plants are eukarya. Thailand’s got animal homologs. The most common reason it has been chosen as a genome-sectional model organizations DNA Arabidopsis consists of approximately 140 million foundations which are divided into five chromosomes, Arabidopsis has the smallest genome from each flowering plant.
Improve Nutritional Quality
Recently, scientists have been able to transfer genes to rice to increase levels of Vitamin A, iron and other micronutrients. This work might have a profound effect on the reduction of blindness and anaemia from vitamin A and iron deficiencies respectively. Scientists have inserted a yeast gene into the tomato and it turns out that a plant has a longer fruit life on the vine. One small gene may all stand between a fresh, juicy, home-grown tomato and a bland counterpart from the store. Biologists have announced that the gene controlled by the humble fruit maturing process has been identified.
When manipulating this “rin” gene effectively, scientists will be able, even after the long journey between the wines to the production department, to create tomato races that are more savory. Now, when still green and firm, tomatoes are plucked out from the vine early in order to make sure shipping survives without bruising. Tomatoes are chosen early so that they are less able to naturally develop flavor , color and nutrients. The scientists can slow the molding process by handling the “rin” gene and let the tomato develop on the vine longer-but still maintaining it as firm as possible for safe shipping.
The scientists responsible for gene “rin” discoveries are from the United States. Department of Agriculture and the Cornell University campus Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research. They hope that their techniques will also apply to fruits that suffer from the same shipping or storage complications – such as strawberries, bananas, bell peppers and melons.
Bioinformatics is also used in following fields:
- Microbial genome
- Molecular medicine
- Personalised medicine
- Preventative medicine
- Gene therapy
- Drug development
- Antibiotic resistance
- Evolutionary studies
- Waste cleanup
- Climate change Studies
- Alternative energy sources
- Crop improvement
- Forensic analysis
- Bio-weapon creation
- Insect resistance
- Improve nutritional quality
- Development of Drought resistant varieties
- Veterinary Science
Summary and Conclusions
Bioinformatics plays a major role in developing countries such as India in areas such as agriculture, where it can be used to increase nutrition content, increase agricultural products volume and implant disease resistance, etc. In the areas of medicine, microbial genome applications and agriculture, bioinformatics are used in many ways. It will enable researchers in their experiments to reach a new level. Major findings can be made more quickly and effectively.
Every large molecular or system biology project today has a component in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics applications will allow biologists to increase expertise for data analysis and experimental planning much more efficiently and effectively.