Sinusitis: Definition – Symptoms – treatment – Prevention, Find answers to all your question related to Sinusitis, How? Why? What?
What is Sinusitis?
Before we can answer the question, we have to talk a little bit about the Anatomy: Sinuses are hollow spaces in the nose bones connecting with the nose via a small, narrow channel. Humans have four pairs for nose sinuses.
- Your frontal sinuses are situated in the lower centre of your forehead.
- Your ethmoid sinuses lie between your eyes.
- Your Maxillary sinus (behind cheeks).
- sphenoid sinus (deep behind the ethmoids)
Sinusitis is an inflammation of your sinuses.
How is sinusitis caused?
98% of the sinusitis can also be caused by bacterial infection as a result of viral infection. While it can be caused by fungal disease in small populations. There are some pre-disposal factors, including Allergic rheumatism, facilitating infection, exposure to smoke or cigars, anatomical abnormalities, which make it difficult for sinuses to drain.
Blockage of the sinus openings, or Ostia is a result of inflammation is the central event in sinusitis. The obstructed sinuses can not circulate air and remove secretions and are ideal for bacterial infections.
Types of Sinusitis?
Types of sinusitis include:
- Acute Sinusitis, which lasts up to 4 weeks
- Subacute Sinusitis, which lasts 4 to 12 weeks
- Chronic Sinusitis, which lasts more than 12 weeks and can continue for months or even years
- Recurrent Sinusitis, with several attacks within a year
What are the signs and Symptoms of sinusitis?
Most people realize that the first thing will be a pain. The pain can also be located at the sinus involved, causing general headache pain. When you tap the finger sinus, it can create sensitivity.
Also since the mucous membrane is inflamed, much mucus is produced, and through sinus openings and Ostia drain into the nasal cavity. There are only two things that can come out of your nose once in the nasal cavity:
- The first thing you can do will be out of your nose so that people will see that Nasal discharge is occurring.
- The second thing it can do is get back into your throat since the back of your nose is related back of your throat and there it causes irritation and causes you to cough.
Mucosal inflammation can also change the smell and taste. The infection and inflammation can also lead to fever in patients.
How can we diagnose sinusitis?
By and Large, the diagnosis of sinusitis is made by symptoms alone.
Common symptoms include:
- Nasal or postnasal drip
- sinus pain or pressure
- Nasal congestion
- decreased ability to smell
- headache and
But sometimes the symptoms aren’t clear cut, in that case, there are some other tests that can be done to diagnose: sometimes a medical practitioner will take a look inside your nose to get a better look at nasal or postnasal drip this is called ‘Rhinoscopy‘.
X rays can be done to visualize sinuses. The gold standard to diagnose is the CT scan. Other tests are only done if needed in special circumstances.
How can we treat sinusitis?
For acute viral sinusitis, the most common type of sinusitis, not much can be done for the disease itself, but symptoms can be treated. One of these medications will be nasal decongestants.
Nasal decongestants: These drugs shrink swollen nasal passages which make drainage from the sinuses easier.
We also offer mucolytic drugs to help remove mucus. We ask the patient to stay well hydrated as well as being hydrated in the mucus drainage because it is not so sticky that if your body is well hydrated it is easy to drain them.
Finally, we also give pain killers to help relieve pain. For Acute Bacterial sinusitis, we give all of the above plus Antibiotics for 10-14 days. For chronic Sinusitis: again all of the above but the antibiotics have to be given for a lot longer period. most people recommend 4-6 weeks of antibiotics.
If the sinusitis is too severe and the person is at risk of complications, we go for surgery: surgery may be done to remove small amounts of bone or other material blocking the sinus openings or to remove growths blocking sinuses also called as polyps. Normally, a thin, lighted tool called an endoscope is inserted through the nose so the doctor can see and remove whatever is blocking the sinuses.
Risks for colon polyps?
For colon polyps, the risk factors include:
- eating a high-fat, low-fibre diet
- being over 50 years of age
- having a family history of colon polyps and cancer
- using tobacco and alcohol
- having an intestinal inflammation disorder like Crohn’s disease
- being obese
- not getting enough exercise
- having type 2 diabetes that isn’t well-managed
Sinusitis: Definition – Symptoms – treatment – Prevention
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