Top 10 research institutions in 2020, The institutions have contributed to the most important publications journals in the past year.
The National Institutes of Health consists of 27 separate elements, called Institutes and Centers. The national health institutes. Everyone has its own unique research agenda, mostly concentrating on particular diseases or structures of the body. Each but three of these is funded directly by Congress and administer their own budgets. Leadership by NIH plays an important role in influencing the work, strategies and viewpoints of the Agency.
The Director’s Office is the central office which is responsible for developing NIH policies, as well as planning, management and coordination of all NIH programs and activities.
The headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland is housed in the Office of the Director and the Institutes and Centers. The NIH has over 75 facilities in a 300 acres campus area. Some research is performed on campus in state-of-the-art laboratory facilities, while scientists in every state and around the world perform over 80 per cent of research activities.
In 2013, the intramural research program (IRP) became the largest biomedical research institution in the world with 1,200 main and over 4,000 postdoctoral fellows, while in 2003, the extramural arm received 28 per cent of the US biomedical research funding annually, i.e. some $26.4 billion.
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS is one of the world’s leading research institutions. It explores the world of the living, matter, worlds and the way people work in order to meet today’s and tomorrow’s major challenges. Recognized internationally for its scientific research excellence, CNRS is a benchmark in both the world of R&D and the general public.
With the Mission “The French state has entrusted the CNRS with the role of advancing knowledge for the benefit of society. The organisation seeks to accomplish this national mission while respecting ethical rules and showing commitment to professional equality.”
The French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) is the French State Research Organization and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
In 2016, there were 31,637 employees, 11,137 tenured scientists, 13,415 engineers and technical staff and 7,085 contract staff. The company has offices in Brussels, Beijing, Tokyo, Singapore, Washington, D.C., Bonn, Tunis, Moscow, Johannesburg, Santiago, Israel, New Delhi.
The Chinese Science Academy is the cornerstone of China’s commitment to the exploitation and use of high tech and natural sciences for China and the world.
In addition to an extensive research and development system, CAS combines scientists and engineers from China and around the glossary of theoretical and applied issues using internationally-class scientific and management approaches and provides a merit-based academic society and a higher education system.
Since its establishment, CAS has played a variety of roles — as a national team and a motor driver for national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting national S&T development, an S&T consultancy think tank and an S&T talent-training community.
Now that CAS responds to a national call for innovation to be at the core of China’s development, it has further defined its strategy for development by highlighting the increased reliance on democratic administration, openness and talent for promoting innovative research. The academy committed to delivering science and technology breakthroughs, higher talent and superior scientific advice through the adoption of its Innovation 2020 program in 2011.
As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.
While it is mainly known as a regulatory and service agency, the U.S. federal cabinet department includes some of the nation’s most active scientific research centres, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Ce department’s 11 operational divisions include some of the most active scientific research centres.
While the department’s duties are extensive, a considerable portion of its resources expands science on healthcare, biomedical research, and food- and medicine safety. Several cabinet divisions, including the United States, were responsible for important scientific and social breakthroughs.
The National Human Genome Research Institute, which has played a key role in mapping the human genome, and the public health service which helped to eradicate the smallpox virus. The NIH supported research leading to the development of CRISPR, a tool for the revised genome, which fuels a boom in medical and pharmaceutical companies’ new treatments and products.
The development of experimental treatment for prion diseases at the NIH included recent research out of HHS laboratories. This treatment uses synthetic compounds known as antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit the formation of proteins that can harm the central nervous system and may lead to new therapies for human ailments including the disease of Creutzfeldt-Jakob, although this has only been demonstrated effectively in animal testing.
Harvard University has an outstanding track record for high-quality research output, ranked second overall in the Nature Index 2019 Annual Tables and number 1 in academic institutions, life sciences and nature and science. In physical sciences, it is also ranked seventh.
Harvard has produced numerous well-known alumni, including 48 Nobel laureates, 32 Heads of Government and 48 Pulitzer Prize winners, one of the oldest universities in the United Kedan. Its annual research funding is 887 million (2018-2019) dollars and 2,280 full-time professorships.
Two-thirds of its research results are owed by the university to contributions to life science, which are partly attributed to the Harvard Medical School, which currently has 15 Nobel Prizes winners.
“We have highly qualified professional schools and high-quality programs here, probably one of the best in the country and in the world,” said Richard McCullough, vice-provost for research. “Some of the highest and best students and faculty are attracted.”
The Fraunhofer Society was formed in 1949 and was named after German visionists Joseph von Fraunhofer for the Promotion of Applied Research. Founded in 1949. It employs over 26,600 staff in 72 institutes and units across Germany for research.
Contracting with industry generates over 2.2 billion dollars in the company’s, 2.6 billion dollars annual research budget; public funds account for just approximately 30% of its annual budget. Research fields include safety and protection, energy and resources, mobility and transport, services production and provision, communication and knowledge, health and the environment.
The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is making 1.9 billion euros available to universities within the scope of the excellence initiative. In addition to the “Future concepts for the promotion of top-class research at universities” – elite universities – clusters of excellence and postgraduate schools will also be sponsored. Fraunhofer Institutes contribute to the success of their partner universities.
Founded in 1913 and incorporated in 1920 by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council (MRC). Today, it is a publicly funded human health agency which supports research and training throughout the whole range of the medical sciences, from fundamental laboratory science to clinical studies in all important areas of disease. The funds are allocated to universities, hospitals and a network of dedicated institutions throughout the UK and Africa.
MRCs are dedicated to six science areas: infection and immunity, molecular and cellular health, neurosciences and mental health, population and system medicine, global health and translational research. The MRC focuses on three different institutions and units. Early successful for MRC was the finding, in 1916, that sunshine and/or cod liver oil can heal rickets, a painful and deforming disease. In 1962 the Nobel Prize was given for their work in the mrc to identify the structure of DNA for James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins.
In 2014 MRC scientist John O’Keefe gave the Nobel Prize to cell discovery for a brain positioning system or ‘inner GPS’ in Physiology and Medicine, while MRC scientist Michael Levitt shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2013 to develop multiscal models to complete chemical systems and to date it won 31 Nobel Prize winners.
New research, funded by the MRC and conducted by researchers at the University of Cambridge, found that a unique combination of conventional drugs can successfully treat dangerous strains of antibiotic-resistant “superbug” bacteria. The researchers found that the bacteria have become susceptible to penicillin and stopped reproduction when treating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with clavulana acid, a common chemicals that treat kidney infections.
Established in 1964, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) is now Germany’s largest biomedical research institute. The Center employs 1352 researchers in 90 departments, groups and units of clinical collaboration. Her research focuses on the mechanisms of cancer, the identification of cancer risk factors and the search for strategies for preventing cancer in people. DKFZ scientists were awarded two Nobel awards, one for chemical innovations in 2014 and another for medical work in 2008.
It also works with global innovative experts such as China Academy of Science, INSERM, and the Anderson Cancer Center of MD in Texas. The DKFZ is a member of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centre.
DKFZ scientists have found ways to disable an essential defence mechanism of stem cells of leukaemia, facilitating the search and destruction of the immune system. Leukaemia stem cells typically “hide” by removing and tying a protein that immune cells look for, making stem cells invisible effectively.
DKFZ scientists found that immune cells could identify and eliminate the disease if they reactivated that protein in laboratory animals. The discovery may lead to human leukaemia patients to new therapeutic approaches.
In natural sciences, living sciences and humanities, the Max Planck Society conduct fundamental research. Eighty Nobel prize winners have emerged from its ranks since it was founded in 1948. In addition to five other foreign institutions, the Max Planck Company operates another 20 Max Planck Centers with research institutions, such as Princeton University in the USA, París Science Po in France, United Kingdom University College in London and Japan University in Tokyo.
The Max Planck Society, with 86 Max Planck institutes and facilities, is the international leader of German science. The Max-Planck-Society has an annual budget of EUR 1,8 billion in 2019 financed equally by federal and state governments.
Germany’s most successful research organization is the Max Planck Society. No less than 18 Nobel Prize winners have emerged from the ranks of their scientists since its creation in 1948, bringing them into line with worldwide best and best prestigious research institutions.
Each year more than 15 000 publications are evidence of outstanding research at Max Planck Institutes in internationally renowned scientific reviews and many of the articles are amongst the most cited in these fields.
The MIT community is driven by a shared objective: education, research and innovation to make a better world. We are funny and spectacular, elite but not elitist, inventive and artful, numerical and welcome talented people, wherever they come from.
MIT is profoundly American, established to accelerate the nation’s industrial revolution. Our graduates invented essential technology with ingenuity and drive, set in motion new industries and created millions of American jobs. At the same time, MIT is deeply global (opening in new windows), and without any sense of conflict. As a magnet for talent from all over the world, our community gains huge strength. The exceptional community of MIT pursues its mission of serving the nation and the world through teaching, research, and innovation.
MIT has many centres and laboratories for research. The facilities include a nuclear reactor, an artificial intelligence laboratory, geoscience and astrophysics observatories, a linear accelerator, a space research centre, a wind-tunnel, a cognitive science centre and an International Studies Center. The library system of MIT is comprehensive and comprises a number of expert libraries. Several museums are also available.
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Top 10 research institutions in 2020